Delhi proposal – 1927
After Non- Cooperation Movement
- The Non-Cooperation Movement was withdrawn in February 1922.
- The Dyarchy became operational, communalism reared its ugly head and in the post-1922 years the county was repeatedly plunged into communal riots.
- Old communal organizations were revived and fresh ones founded.
- The Muslim League once again became active and was cleansed of radical and nationalist elements.
- The Hindu Mahasabha was revived in 1923 and openly began to cater to anti-Muslim sentiments.
- The Hindu as well as Muslims communalists tied to inculcate the psychology of fear among Hindus and Muslims.
- During these years that Sangathan and Shuddhi movements among Hindus and Tanzeem and Tabligh movements among Muslims, working for communal consolidation and religious conversion, came up.
- A large number of nationalists were not able to withstand communal pressure and began to adopt communal or semi-communal positions.
- The Swarajists were split by communalism.
- A group known as 'responsivists' offered cooperation to the Government so that the so-called Hindu interests might be safeguarded.
- Lajpat Rai, Madan Mohan Malaviya and N.C. Kelkar joined the Hindu Mahasabha and argued for Hindu communal solidarity.
- Many old Khilafatists also now turned communal.
- The most dramatic shift was that of Maulanas Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali who now accused the Congress of trying to establish a Hindu Government and Hindus of wanting to dominate and suppress Muslims.
- Communal riots which broke out in major North Indian cities during 1923-24.
- The nationalist leadership made strenuous efforts to oppose communal political forces.
- Either the Congress leaders acted as mediators or intermediaries between different communal groups or they themselves tried to arrive at a compromise with Muslim communal leaders on questions of 'protection' to and 'safeguards' of the interests of the minorities in terms of reservation of seats in the legislatures and of jobs in the government.
- The most well-known of such efforts was made during 1928.
Delhi proposal – 1927
- A large number of Muslim communal leaders met at Delhi in December 1927 and evolved four basic demands known as the Delhi Proposals.
These proposals were:
- Sind should be made a separate province;
- the North-West Frontier Province should be treated constitutionally on the same footing as other provinces;
- Muslims should have 33 1/3 per cent representation in the central legislature;
- In Punjab and Bengal, the proportion of representation should be in accordance with the population, thus guaranteeing a Muslim majority, and in other provinces, where Muslims were a minority, the existing reservation of seats for Muslims should continue.